Mittwoch, 29. Oktober 2014

Endoscopic Evolution

 The history of building endoscopes is related in growing knowlege in physics, electricity, optics and light but also in workmanship and metalworking. Espacially the Age of Enlightment and the following industrial revolution brouht progress to endoscopy.

 The Age of Enlightenment was a period between the 17th and 18th centuries and produced a number of important artists, thinkers and scientists. It was followed by the era of the Industrial Revolution. In this period the fundament for endoscopy were laid . (1806 by Philipp Bozzini)

But Endoscopy is much more than builging endoscopes. It is the story how and why endoscopy became so important for diagnosis and treatment of patients. Endoscopy is used nowadays in all medical disciplines with numerous applications and is part of minimally invasive treatment of patients. It helps to minimizes risks, pains and recovery time.

Endoscopy contents building of endoscopes, developing of different endoscopic surgical instruments, production of elctric devices and documentation systems and each of this fields has it´s own history.

To seperate the informations into different history storys helps to recognize the milestones which brought  technical and treatment progress. Following the evolution process in endoscopy will help to judge about acutally offered products and treatment procedures in a competent way and will also help to recognize which future key technologies will have influence into endoscopic developments and treatment progress.

Mittwoch, 8. Oktober 2014

The Platinium Glow Wire in Endoscopy

The way to first intracorporal lighting in endoscopic history.

With the use of a platinium glow wire the endoscopy developed in a new direction. For the first time it was possible to place a light source inside a body.

The Frenchman Gustave Trouve used this glow wire first, invented by Davy,  in conjunction with an endoscope. The Pantoscope, Polyscope and different Urethroscopes have been developed for different interventions. Trouve used for its Endoscope the optical system of Gallilei.

State of the art: optical lenses, mirrors, surgical instruments and tubes were available also batteries and platinium glow wires.
Inventive step: Gustave Trouve recognized that he could place the glow wire at the tip of the tube. This would lead to much better ligthtening of the human cavity and the first intrcorporal lightening instead of outside. The design of the endoscope changed to a better anatomical shape and was easier to handle than the light conductor of Bozzini. Trouve used the optics of G. Gallilei. A battery delivered the electric power.
Disadvantages:The platinum glow wire only worked in air, not in water. He developed a high temperature and there was the risk of suffering burns both for the doctor and for the Patient.
Even the German physician Dr. J. Bruck has the platinium glow wire 1867 used for its Stomatoskop, may be Trouvé has taken this development as a model.


Endoscopy and electricity

According to the phenomena of electricity have been known for a long time. Lightning, electrical shock by electric eel and electric charge of the amber was known before the birth of Christ. Thales of Miletus has dealt with this phenomenon about 600 BC .

Today we know that electricity is generated by friction of certain materials. Significant inventors like Ott von Guerricke, the Briton William Gilbert and others provided important contributions to the use of electricity

1810, a year after Philip Bozzinis death, the chemist Humphry Davy created the basis for the carbon arc lamp. Sir William Grove took advantage of the platinum wire for illumination. This wire was heated so much as an electrical conductor, that he began to glow, producing light. The electric power was generated by a battery.

  Sir William Grove
Volta discovered the basics of making a battery and Dr. William Cruickshank designed the first electric battery in 1802. Without question, all these inventions are to provide the prerequisite for the endoscopy to the next level and have been recognized by doctors as important for use in endoscopy.