Donnerstag, 25. September 2014

The Reasons for Endoscopic Progress


                                                                                                                                                              The endoscopic progress is based on four reasons:

1. the ongoing improvement of the endoscope itself
2. the development of surgical instruments by surgeons who are experienced in anatomy and    application and the realization by surgical mechanics.
3. by the accurement of different medical disciplines and their opinion leaders, which contributed significantly to the
dissemination of endoscopy.
4. through the integration of key technologies ( electricity, glass fibers, information technologie, video technology, mechatronics, bionics)

It is a sad bad true experience: War and Weapons drive science and workmanship. A community which owns the best weapons will be in most cases the winner in a militant conflict, will add new territories and will become the sovereign about a foreign folk.

But also health care expands as alot of wounded soldiers and civilists hav to be treated. Each new kind of weapon cause new ind of injury and requires for new Treatment methods.

Microscope - Telescope - Endoscope

Commonalities and differences

It belongs to the old dreams of humankind to see away things close (telescope) and small things large (microscope) also it was a desire to look into the human body through natural cavities without harm. (endoscopy)

All three products have a similar structure made of a metal cladding tube and an optical system consisting of eypiece lens and lens array.

The microscope was the first invention of this three different products, invented about 1590. The Inventor cannot be determined, it was probably built by the Dutchman Hans Jannsen 1595. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1732) also a Dutchman built about 500 microscopes. The lenses had 1.2 mm Diameter and a radius of 0.7 mm, the cut was carried out in excellent quality.It was possible to achieve with this microscopes a magnification up to 270 times. A significant improvement was reached in 1816 by the German Josef von Fraunhofer. He developed a much more improved type of glass and designed achromatic lenses. He included them in his microscope, which remained unrivaled in quality for long times. 1823 improved the the Paris physicist Sellique the microscope objective by merging up to four achromatic cemented components (plan-concave and bi-convex). Beside the advancement of optical components also the mechanical parts were new designed, completed and became better and better.

The telescope followed the microscope as invention a few years later. It was invented in 1608 by the Dutchman Hans Lippershey. As a result, the properties of telescope and microscope have been continously improved by extending the knowledge of light and optics and improvment of lens grinding and mechanical parts. After Lippershey particularly Galileo Galilei and Johannes Keppler are to mention as significant contributors to  development and dissemination of the telescope. Big influence also had the scientists Isaac Newton (1643 - 1723) and Christian Huygens (1629 - 1695) by defining the properties of light.

All These inventions represented not only  progress for the development of the telescope and microscope but also formed the basis for the development of endoscopy, initiated by Philipp Bozzini 100 years later.

The endoscope followed the two inventions about 100 years later. The problem was probably due to the lighting. The only possible remedy was lighting by a candle at this time. In 1800 the candle was industrially-manufactured and was affordable, before that it was a luxury good.
Lighting - the big Problem of endoscopy. The candle was the first artificial light source to illuninate body cavities. While the illumination of objects in microscopy and telescopy carried by natural light from outside, the illumination of body cavities was much more complicated because it was carried out indirectly via mirrors and lens systems. The candle as a light source was not suitable because of poor light intensity. Therefore only lenses could be used with a small opening angle, so both framing and  resolution was inferior.

Freitag, 12. September 2014

Endoscopic Evolution


Endoscopy covers nowadays five leading technical revolutions: Optics, Mechatronic, Visualization (Camera and Monitor Technologie) Medical IT and Documentation. Each of These technologies has ist own history. It is an adventure to follow the documentation wich discribes early developments and how they improved step by step over the years.

Within the last 40 years one technology after the other has been integrated into endoscopic treatment and diagnosis. Now endoscopy is not any more the same it had been 30 years ago and it needs a long learning curve to use all available tools in an experienced manner. Also it is necessary to collect intependent informations to judge about quality criterias.

Endoscopic History Facebook Page and Group should help to reach a better understanding of endoscopic devices and treatment. The passway is, to follow the evolution within the last 200 years.

The Goal is that many experts, coming from Surgery, Development and Research, who deal with endoscopy should contribute their knowledge by publishing posts and images. A textbook of extraorinary knowledge could be generated as an open source to any member.
Endoscopic History explains state of the art at the moment of a mile stone invention in endoscopy and the inventive step. The series starts with Philipp Bozzini and will be continued till to the present.

Goal is to point out how quality of endoscopic equipment improved with each development and the relationship to the progress in patient treatment, patient safty and minimally invasive operation techniques.

To spread this concept the Facebook Group "Endoscopic History" has been founded. The group is open for surgeons, medical staff, medical engineers and historic institutions.

Everyone of this target group, who is interested in Endoscopic History is invited to contribute  with publications and images. Please become member of this Group and invite your friends.